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Full text of "The famous Nikolas lacquers."

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M D MOIL A 







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APR 20 19151 



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[anions' 

NIKOLAS 

ULRS 





Manufactured hy 

GJNikolas L Company 

1227-1229 W. VanBurerv Street 
C///C4GO 



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I 



Main Office and Factory, 1227-122 ■ w Van Buren St., ( bi( 
Brooklyn, V ^ .. Branch, 170 Second iv< 

I 1 1 French Co., San Fj i Cal. 

w P. Fuller & Co., Los \n- I. -. I ,1. 
% I l ■ • l ronto, Om 




7 

£ 




C J Nikolas- 

THE ORIGINATOR of WiQs 

FAMOUS NIKOLAS LACQUERS 



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c We ^iiiai2sAliJcoIasa£kcgiiers 




Facts About Lacquer 

^OTJ polish, plate and lacquer your goods to make 
them attractive, so they can be sold. A highly 
finished article sells readily because it pleat's the 
eye. A tarnished article will not sell at all because 
it is displeasing to the rye. 

"Nikolas" Lacquer imparts a beautiful lustre to ihe metal 
and when used with gold colors, fine imitations of gold phi I * can 
be produced. It also preserves the finish for a long time after 
the goods are put. into use. 

It costs from five to fifty times as much to prepare the 
metal for lacquering as it does for the lacquer, [f the lacquer 
is of poor quality, the finish very quickly becomes dull, tar- 
nishes and mar- easily in handling and shipping. 

If your goods become tarnished while in the dealers* hands 
he cannot sell them and they are returned to you. If they 
tarnish after he has sold them they are returned to him or 
complaints made which have to be adjusted. 

Such occurrences are annoying and cause hi^s of prestige 
for the manufacturer. 

Prestige is your greatesl business asset the hardesl thing 
to build up and the easiesl thing to tear down and destroy. 
i 



G&MAatas£L Company Oiicado 






It I linvl'niv hccnmcs necessary t<> gain the confidence <»t llie 
dealer by furnishing him the goods he can sell withoul the 
fear of c< une I >acks and loss 

\> everything depends <»n the lacquer, why nol use 
"Nikolas" Lacquers which are always depemlaUe. 

They have bee the markel twenty years and during 

thai time have never failed to give satisfaction. 

We will pay $500.00 to anj one win* can prove thai I hey 
or anyone else ever received any "Nikolas" Lacquer thai was 

nol of a good quality and entirely suitable for g Is or finishes 

for w Ineti we recommended I hem. 

Our lacquers are biore reliable than any oilier because we 
use materials thai never vary in quality and we have a secret 
process which (amities us to utilize a certain fossil gum which no 
oilier lacquer manufacturer has ever been able to dissolve. 

All of our goods are manufactured and tested under the 
persona] supervision of Mr. G. J. Nikolas, which is ;m additional 
guarantee thai they are dependable. 

Our lacquers are all tested before shipping, and a sample 
labeled and held for future reference. We have samples of all 
lacquers sold during the pasl seven years. 

Our lacquers are aged in heavj steel, glass enameled tanks 
because aging lacquers improves them the same as it does ai 
nishes. We carry o^er 20,000 gallons of lacquer in stock. 



■■ 



We have the largesl and finesl equipped factory, devoted 
exclusively to the manufacture of lacquers, in existence. 

We have always confined ourselves to high grade lacquers 
because if an article is worth finishing, it is worth lacquering 
with a first class lacquer. The lacquer i^ I he niosl important 
and leasl expensive pari of the finish. 

As a result of this policy, we sell the majority of high 
grade lacquer users. At the present time we are selling over 75 
per cent of the brass bed manufacturers and fully 90 per cent of 
the lighting fixture manufacturers. Wemention Ihcse two lines 
because they require a better lacquer than many other line-. 

'Nikolas" Lacquers are sold on a one price l>asi>. We 
are the only lacquer manufacturers that have ever issued a net 
price list. 

Some firms manufacture goods on the *\-H (he business 
at any price" plan and make the goods accordingly. 

Goods made <»n this basis are sometimes boughl at their 
real value. bu1 mostly at too high a price. How do you know 
when you are getting your money's worth? 

We know of no other line of merchandise where the buyer 
is so < ompl< tely at the mercy of the seller as in buying lacquer. 

You cannol tell the quality by any of the senses as you can 
everything else. Lacquer may look well several monthsafter 
; - have been placed on the market and then disintegrate. 
p 



GJ'JViAoJas&L Company CAica^o 



To insure yourself against poor lacquers you must investi- 
gate and find the firm that has the reputation for making and 
selling the most reliable goods. 

If you will make an investigation you will soon learn that 
"Nikolas" Lacquers are the best on the market and we will get 
your orders. 

If you are not using "Nikolas" Lacquers we know that you 
are occasionally disappointed in the finished appearance of your 
product, caused by inferior lacquer. 

Why not use "Nikolas" Lacquers and put one of the depart- 
ments of your factory in the "don't worry" class. 

Last, but not least. Have you ever met a salesman who 
claimed he was offering you lacquer superior to "Nikolas" 
Lacquer? We don't believe you have. This tells the story 
more eloquently than we can. 



Page 




ruers 



G. J. Nikolas 




OW many lacquer users ha\ i no1 heard <1 Nikolas? We 
dare say very few. Why? Because he has accomplished 
something notable in his line. He has made a wonderful 
success of his business because he recognized a demand 
and filled it. 

Twenty-five years ago he was employed bj a firm using Lacquer. 
This firm, like many others, had a great deal of trouble in getting 
a uniform lacquer and lost man} customers on this account. 

Nikolas got busy and experimented and was soon able to make 
a lacquer of superior quality. 

The beginning was exceedingly slo^ because his capital consisted of 
I'--- than $50.00 and his credit was nil. 

He took the orders, made the goods, delivered .-01(1 collected 
for them. 

He had no salesmen for several y jars because he was personally 
able to sell all the goods he could manufacture with his small capital. 

His i s senl him over thirty per cent of his new business 

tuse they were well satisfied with his product. 

Alter overcoming many hardships, including the loss of his entire 
capital in a bank failure, he has finally succeeded in placing his 
business in I he fronl rank. 



/ 




Gd*JWAoJa$£L Company C^ica^o 




The 
Nikolas Policy 

Find out what the people 
need— then make it for 
them. 

Treat our customers fair 
and honest. 

Treat them all alike. 



Page 



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c We ^iMaiisAMoIss<^k^iiers 



Nikolas Products 




The '"Nikolas" Bedstead Lacquer 

IEJLAL1ZING the necessity for an extraordinarily durable lacquer 
for brass bedsteads and all goods that are subjected to con-: 
able wear, we placed this brand on the market eighteen years ago. 
ag to its durability, brilliance of finish and uniformity, 
it has come into such favor with the brass bedstead main 
hirers in this country and Canada that we are supplying more of them than 
all our competitors combined. 

It is the best one-coat lacquer ever produced. One application is 
equal to at least -ix of the stove Lacquers commonly known as English lac 

Owing to it- extra heavy body, it is exceptionally adapted for the satin 
finish now so popular. Used in conjunction with our gold color- a _ 
variety of gilt -hades can be produced. We can furnish this lacquer mixed 
with colors but prefer to furnish them separately. It produces a hard and 
Lustrous enamel finish equalled by no other lacquer. 

The "Nikolas" C. E. 5 Lacquer 

Thi- i- our most popular and best known brand. It has been on the 
market twenty years and has never failed to give perfect sati^ 

It i- a brush lacquer par excellence, containing qualities that make it a 
splendid and economical dip lacquer. It will cover much more surface than 
the regular dip lacquers and produces an enamel finish that no other lacquer 
equals for durability and beauty. 

It can be used on all metals and finishes excepting gold and silver. 1* 
ers a range from bra— beds to upholstery tacks. 

For gold Lacquering it has no equal owing to its splendid flowing qualil - 
and its beautiful lustre. Every shade of gilt can be imitated by using our 
colors in conjunction with this lacquer. 

recommend it particularly for chandelier, art. ecclesiastical and eli 
tncal work and for all metal goods requiring a first-class lacquer. 




i. 






Gd'JViAoJssiL Gamp&ityC/iic&do 




"Nikolas" Acid Proof Lacquer 

We ran recommend this lacquer only to those who will properly dean 
their metal and bake the lacquer. 

The metal must be absolutely free from grease. To obtain a clean 
surface we advise washing all huffed goods three or four times with thinner. 
Water and pumice or dr\ emery finished metal need be washed only once 
with thinner. After the lacquer is applied bake at 260 degrees Fahr. for 
one-half hour. 

When properly applied and baked this lacquer is impervious to acid, 
alcohol and \!o' , ammonia. 

It is applied the same as all other lacquers, but the spraying process is 
the most successful. 

Guaranteed to he superior in finish to all others acid proof lacquers. 

The "Nikolas" A. 1 Silver Lacquer 

This is a water-white dip lacquer, made especially for silver and gold. 
It is made from the best material obtainable, and special attention is given 
to produce a perfect colorless article. 

It does not peel nor chip, never turns the silver pink nor the gold red, 
nor does it cloud under ordinary atmospheric conditions. It is impervious 
to water, acids, fumes and the atmosphere. It leaves no drip and dries 
smooth and hard. 

We recommend this brand for burnished, satin, French gray, Butler 
and oxidized silver finishes; also for ormolu and other gold plated good- 

The "Nikolas" A. 5 Silver Lacquer 

This is a brush lacquer for silver and gold. It produces a rich, lustrous 
finish, which greatly improves the appearance of the metal. It never peels 
nor chips, nor scratches with ordinary handlii 

It is adapted for burnished, buffed and oxidized finishes, but should not 
be used for satin silver, ormolu and rose gold finishes, for these we recom- 
mend the A. 1 silver lacquer. 

i // 



^We ^moasMkoIas<^j(Xfuers 



The "Nikolas" No. 1 Lacquer 

This is also a water-white dip lacquer designed especially for builders, 

railway and ship hardware, electrical and all other goods on which a dip 
lacquer is desired. A> it does uo1 produce a gloss we recommend it for 
sand blast, ormolu, satin and gun-metal finishes. 

It is impervious to tunics, water, acid and the atmosphere. It takes 
up its drip perfectly and dries hard and smooth. It leaves no white or 
green drip-. 

Finger marks can be removed with a cloth from this as well as from all 
of our other "Nikolas" brands. 



The "Nikolas" Alcohol Lacquer 

This lacquer is made on similar lines to the old style alcohol or stove 
lacquers. The metal does not require heating before the lacquer is applied, 
and one coat of this lacquer is equal to about six of the stove lacquers. 

It can he appli< tme a- the stove lacquers, if six parts of alcohol 

arc added to one part lacquer. 



S. 1 Lacquer 

This lacquer is made especially for electroplated iron goods, i e., metal 
furniture, stamped steel hardware, elevator enclosures, eh , '"it is adapt- 
able for all finishes and metals. 

It can be used either as a brush or dip lacquer. It produces ;« rich gloss 
and a hard, durable finish. 

It i- made on different lines from others, with the idea ol producing a 
omical lacquer of a good and durable quality. <>n numerous 
comp. s proven thai this brand wul cover from --'<> to M> 

per cent more sui □ any oth< 



O^JViAoJasH Company CAica^o 






R. 10 Lacquer 

While this is our lowest-priced lacquer, it has a wide range of uses. 

It is highly successful on small, acid-dipped brass goods which are 
lacquered in baskets. As the lacquer is very free flowing it quickly runs 
off, so the articles do not stick together. Steel tools used by carpenters, 
linemen and others can be protected with this lacquer so they will not rust 
while in stock. It also is used on cheap brass and copper-plated goods. 

Instrument Lacquer 

This is a lemon-yellow colored lacquer designed for optical and technical 
instruments. We can also furnish it in an orange color. 

The base of this is our Alcohol lacquer. The advantage of this brand 
over the old style lacquers is, the metal requires no heating, therefore pro- 
ducing a more lustrous finish. Only one coat is required. 

Glossy Black Lacquer 

This lacquer produces a very beautiful rubber-black finish, which is very 
hard, tenacious and extremely durable. It is applied similar to our other 
lacquers. It will air dry in less than ten minutes. If baked, it should not 
be heated to a higher temperature than 150 degrees Fahr. for fifteen or 
twenty minutes. 

The metal on which the lacquer is applied should first be oxidized. A 
more lustrous finish is obtained on a smooth surface than on a rough one. 



The "Nikolas" Dead Black Lacquer 

This lacquer is a very fine imitation of the genuine Bower-Barif finish. 
It is made from our bedstead lacquer, which insures the finest wearing sur- 
face that can be produced with a lacquer. It never peels nor chips even 
though it be applied on highly polished surfaces, and covers the metal so 
well that oxidizing is unnecessary. The finish is less liable to get glossy 
from handling than ordinary black lacquers. 

Page 13 



Number 2 Dead Black Lacquer 

The body of this lacquer is a combination of the "Nikolas" Bedstead 
and C. E. 5 Lacquers. This insures great adhesiveness and durability. 
The pigments which are added to black lacquers are foreign to them and as 
a result, reduce the adhesive qualities. For this reason we use only our 
finest brands of lacquer for our celebrated Dead Black lacquers. They 
never chip or peel. 

This brand has the same covering quality as our "Nikolas" brand, but 
we advise oxidizing the metal before applying the lacquer. 

Like the "Nikolas" brand this one produces a fine imitation of the 
genuine Bower-Barff finish. 

^Nikolas" Lacquer Euamels 

These enamels are made from our "Nikolas" Bedstead Lacquer to which 
is added the finest pigment colors. 

This combination produces beautiful air-drying enamels which can be 
used on all kinds of metals, wood, etc. 

We recommend them only to those who are equipped w T ith a spraying 
apparatus. 

We manufacture this enamel in Red, White, Blue, Yellow, Green, etc. 

'Nikolas'' Verde Antique Lacquer Enamel 

This product is a lacquer em 1 which we can furnish in many shades. 

^ on can produce in a few minutes a Verde Antique finish which is superior 
to the chemical finish in man.\ ways. 

Prepare the metal by copper plating and oxidizing black, apply a coat 
of our C. E. 5 Lacquer, allow it to set, then apply the Antique Verde Lacquer 
with a spray. By holding the sprayer about fifteen inches from the work 
you will obtain the spotted effect. By applying more or less the finish can 
be varied. 

We carry three stock shades, No. 1, No. 2 and No. 3. The No. 1 is 
deeper green than the No. 2. No. 3 is more gray. 

Page U 





Colors 



Gold 



Special Gold 

l.rmull ^ e I low 



Orange ^ ellow 
Brush Brass 

All <>f our colors arc in a concentrated liquid form, ready to be added 
to the lacquer. The> mix very readily with any of our transparent brush 
lacquers. In selecting our colors, we have exercised great care to obtain 
those that have no injurious effect on the lacquer. 

Gold Color 

This is a deep gold color which requires toning with either Orange or 
Lemon Yellow colors to produce various shades of gilt. 

Special Gold Color 

Made for those wanting one color to answer all requirements. Many 
beautiful shades can be produced with it. We recommend it to bedstead 
manufacturers, job platers, etc. 

Brush Brass Color 

Brush brass color added to the lacquer will give tone to the brush brass 
rini^h. 

The "Nikolas" Gold Dye 

M.in\ small articles, such as belt and suspender buckles, hat pins, 
medals, fobs, etc., which cannot be successfully gold lacquered in the ordinary 
way and therefore are either -old plated or left in the brass finish, ran be 
economically finished with our gold dye 

Goods colored by this method do not require rinsing in water and drying 
off in sawdust. By doing away with these operations the goods are not 
marred and considerable labor i> -aved. 

Lacquer the goods with No. 1 or \ I La< 'pier in the usual manner, and 
after the lacquer has been baked five or ten minutes, immerse in the dyv 
for a feu seconds, take out and shake vigorously to remove the superfluous 
dye and again place in the oven for a minute or t\\« - 1 trained help 

i- not required for doing this work. 

We can furnish the dye in a number of shades. 

• 15 



c C&e 9SmonsAlfJcolasc£Qcguers 








*&/V£AcJas£L Company Oiic&do 



Lacquer Spraying Machines 

As stated in another part of thi> pamphlet, spraying is one of the three 
approved method^ * * I" lacquering. It is superior to the brush method because 
the lacquer may be applied much more evenly and heavily than is possible 
with a brush. 

Compared with dipping, the spraying method is better because the 
lacquer is always clean, which, as you are well aware, is not true of dipping. 
In addition, a great deal less lacquer is required. 

One spray operator will do as much work as three or tour brush lac- 
querers. The cost of The Nikolas Spraying Outfit can be paid for in a short 
time by the saving in labor. 

A complete apparatus consists of an air compressor, air receiver with 
safety valve and gauge, and air brush or spray cup. It requires from thirty- 
five to forty-five pounds air pressure to atomize the lacquer, which is pro- 
jected on the metal in the form of a fine vapor. 

We furnish complete outfits from $56.50 up. Write us stating your 
requirements and we shall be pleased to quote you on a suitable equipment. 




If you are using the old method of applying lacquer 
you are losing in efficiency, time and money. 



Page 17 



'&$. 



7 3ies^ 




The Nikolas Hub 




HE "Nikolas" Huh for utilizing worn down sewed 
buffs, which are usually burned or disposed of for 
very little, is a greal money saver. 'Flic above cut 
show s 1 he hub loaded with twentj -four sect ions ready 
to be trued down to a smooth face. The wheel is ver\ easih 
balanced with the weights we furnish with every hub. 

18 



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Gd°JViAoJa$4L Company Oiica^o 





Base of Hub 



Retaining ( ap 



The hub is no experiment. It was in practical use for 
nearly a year before it was offered to the public. We know 
that it is practical, mechanically correct and a big money saver. 



^ 



I'm m It and Gauge for Perforating Buffs 






If yon have enough worn sections to keep the hub in constant use, 
you can save $7,5 a year above (lie cosl of the hub, which is $15. 

Page /<> 



A wheel made up on our hub never cakes with composition 
so it would require "opening up" as wheels do when made up 
from new sections. The wheel "cuts" more rapidly than a 
new one. The sections do not catch the work where they 
overlap, as you might think they would. 






i 




Diagram Showing Plan of Assembling Buff 



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\ Good |{ru>h Is Half the Battle 

The bristles of our brushe ired by firsl immersing the luitts 

"i -Mil ends of the bristles in sofl rubber; they are then put upon the end 

of flu' handle not around it as in the old way); ;i bell of rubber, combined 

with metal wound around tin- whole, covering the l>utt> of the bristles, and 

conforming to a groo 1 e running around tin- adjoining end of the handle. 

'Flie portion of tin- brush covered with rubber and metal is thru placed 
in a die, and vulcanized or hardened) under heal and pressure The result 
is a solid vulcanized head in which the bristles arc so thoroughly imbedded 

tli.il it in impossi- 
ble for I hem t, 
loose 

The handle being 
ilm e-tailed into the 
head is also firmly 
secured. 

\\ • -'.ih-. 

thai while great 
ca re is t ,i ken in 

removing short hair from brushes, before shipping, it frequently happens 
thai a tVu hairs, too shorl to catch in the rubber, still remain. 

rhese can be readily removed by washing in thinner line- or four times 
and then dipping the brush in lacquer and drawing several times acn 
rough, unplaned bo 

Price List of Brush* - 

I \ Ml l S-HAIR 
I 1 in 

No I bS, Medium, per doz. I 50 

No I n Exl i.i i in. k and long, per doz 5 M» 





i I M II II VIU 

Face 1 in. 

No 516, single thick, < hisel, per doz 

No 1 1 ', . 'lnut.tr i hick S 

Less L0 per cent in dozen lots. 
W< recommend Nos 'M and -i 1 7 as the nm>t satisfactory Mru^li 



1' ., 


in. 


■1 in. 




in. 




75 


s 9 on 


sll 






10 


111 SI) 


13 


50 


\y ?t 


in. 


2 111. 




in. 




10 








5 


70 


7 60 


9 





/ 



niMOMS. 




f uers 




Information for Lacquer Department 

jJHILE it is important to use good lacquer, it is equally impor- 
tant that it be properly applied. A lacquer improperly applied 
can under no circumstances give good results. There are three 
approved methods of lacquering — viz.: applying with a brush, 
dipping or immersing the metal in the lacquer, and applying 
with a spraying apparatus. Of these methods, dipping and 
spraying are the most satisfactory, when practical, because the lacquer is 
more thoroughly and evenly applied. It requires skill to apply lacquers with 
a brush, particularly so if colors are used in them. To produce an even 
colored finish, the lacquer must be applied perfectly. If it is heavy in one 
place and light in another the color will vary from a dark to a liuht -hade 
and give the work a streaked appearance. Realizing the impossibility of-. 
applying gold lacquer perfectly even, we make a "Special Gold Color," which 
harmonizes more with the brass than darker colors and does not show 
defects so readily when applied unevenly. 

Cleanliness 

To obtain the very best results the metal must be free from grease and 
dirt and should be as clean as for plating. Many manufacturer- fail to 
properly clean the metal and yet want a lacquer to' give satisfaction. This 
demand we have met by adding certain materials to our lacquers which 
absorb the grease so the lacquer will adhere. We do not claim the results 
are as good as if the metal were clean. 

< Iran Metal with Thinner 

It articles cannot be cleaned with cleaning compound- before lacquering, 
and are too large tor dipping in thinner, we recommend the following plan 
which is very effective. Dampen a cloth with thinner and go over the article 
rapidly and thorouj .-ring all parts, then follow with a dry. clean 

cloth or chamois skin. Do not allow the thinner to evaporate before vou 
wipe the article with the drj i loth It you do, you will have considerable 
trouble in removing the gr< 

Page 



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j>M$& <Gb. 



Oiica^o 












Brusli Lacquers 

To insure covering the metal thoroughly, the lacquer should be Unwed 
eel in one direction and taken up in another only sufficient i»» 
hi runs. Bj doing tlii> you will obtain a lustrous and durable finish 
and avoid skips 

Dip Lacquei - 

While Itrnsli lacquers can be used with success as dip lacquers, dip 
lacquers cannol be used verj successfully for brushing, unless ; 
i> exercised to apply a very heavy Bowing coat. 

Watei 'liii- dip lacquers produce n<> gloss nor do the} detract from 
a finish. Therefon re adapted for highl} polished finishes, such as 

burnished and buffed silver, gold, brass, etc., as well as sand blast, satin, 
ormolu and .ill dead finish* 

Dippi \iier the proper amount of thinner 

has been added to the lacquer and the mixture stirred, immerse tin 
in ii and ill<- i until the lacquer starts to set al the top of tde 

article, then place in an oven and bake at I '" degrees Fahr for .1 half hour 
or more. 

Spraying 

Ml lacquers can be applied with the spraying process with gn 
if the metal is clean. One of our customers who, previous to install 

ing plant, employed from twenty to thirty people, no* has less than 
ten and turns out more goods than before. In addition to 1 
in labor, the finish is much superior in brush lacquered work, because more 
l.n quer is applied and it 1- put on more evenly, producing a liner and more 
durable finish. 

Lacquer Rooms 

I ; .(HIT rooms should I light, be clean and kepi 

iture of about I I in the benches and mop the Boors 

dail\ rhe goods should be wiped outside of the lacquer ro< e linl 

will not settle on the lacquer while it is drying. Do not havi draft 

through the room, be< ause it will raise dust and set the lacquer too 
making it difficult to applj it withabrush. 



Cold Weather 

In cold weather allow the metal to attain the temperature of the room 
before lacquering. Lacquer the small articles first in the morning because 
they warm through sooner than the large ones. 

Damp Weather 

On dam]) days, particularly warm ones, close the doors and windows of 
the lacquer room to exclude moisture. If too much moisture settles on the 
metal and Lacquer, the Lacquer will cloud. If the humidity is exceptional, 
place the goods in an oven right after they are lacquered. If you haw do 
oven wait until weather conditions improve. 

Baking Lacquers 

While all the "Nikolas** lacquers are air drying, they are benefited if 
properly baked. Brush Lacquers may be baked at not more than 150 degrees " 
Fahr.. nor for more than fifteen or twenty minutes. Our No. 1 and A. 1 Dip 
Lacquers can be baked at 160 degrees Fahr. for a half hour or more. They 
never get brittle, even if baked for several hours at this temperature. 

Lacquer Tanks 

Lacquer tanks for dip lacquer should be made of glass, earthenware or 
enameled iron, never from zinc, galvanized iron or copper. Tin can be used 
for the No. 1 and A. 1 Lacquers, but not for the others. Have the tanks made 
so the Lacquer can be drawn off frequently to clean them. 

Brushes 
Lacquer brushes should be well taken care of. If thej are allowed to 
get out of shape, it i^ impossible to do good work with them. When not 
in use, suspend them in lacquer or thinner. Never allow them to rest on the 
hair in the lacquer cup. 

Ovens 

I I ens should be heated with steam in preference to gas. If feas is used, 
have an opening in the top of the oven to allow tin unconsumed gas to 

e. After heating the oven for fifteen minutes, open it and allow the 
moisture to escape before placing the 1 at que red goods in it. 

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